As was discussed in my previous post, PwC is claiming the “we were duped” defense as justification for withdrawing ten years of audit reports for Yukos.
A commenter previously asked, “How does this work? What are the rules? Why did you leave me? Is that fair for you to disappear with no warning? What will I do? Where will I go? Who will come to my rescue?”
Well, I promised to research the issue and I’ve come up with this. It’s preliminary, but it seems that this was really a case of “auditus interruptus.” Unless we find out that there were quite a few more conversations than seems evident by comments made by Yukos executives and others to the press, I would say that this strike was preemptive, without warning and not in line with the rules. And we’re not sure what the subsequently discovered information that PwC cryptically refers to is, since PwC is saying that only the receiver in bankruptcy can reveal that and they’re saying they don’t now what in the world PwC talking about…
I need some help from some more technical folks. What is the rule and precedent for “withdrawing ” an audit report?
AU Section 561
Subsequent Discovery of Facts Existing at the Date of the Auditor’s Report
Source: SAS No. 1, section 561; SAS No. 98. See section 9561 for interpretations of this section.
Issue date, unless otherwise indicated: November, 1972.
The procedures described in this section should be followed by the auditor who, subsequent to the date of the report upon audited financial statements, becomes aware that facts may have existed at that date which might have affected the report had he or she then been aware of such facts. fn 1 [As amended, effective September 2002, by Statement on Auditing Standards No. 98.]
Note: When performing an integrated audit of financial statements and internal control over financial reporting, refer to paragraph 197 of PCAOB Auditing Standard No. 2, which provides direction with respect to the subsequent discovery of information existing at the date of the auditor’s report on internal control over financial reporting.
Because of the variety of conditions which might be encountered, some of these procedures are necessarily set out only in general terms; the specific actions to be taken in a particular case may vary somewhat in the light of the circumstances. The auditor would be well advised to consult with an attorney when he or she encounters the circumstances to which this section may apply because of legal implications that may be involved in actions contemplated herein, including, for example, the possible effect of state statutes regarding confidentiality of auditor-client communications. [As amended, effective September 2002, by Statement on Auditing Standards No. 98.]
After the date of the report, the auditor has no obligation fn 2 to make any further or continuing inquiry or perform any other auditing procedures with respect to the audited financial statements covered by that report, unless new information which may affect the report comes to his or her attention. [As amended, effective September 2002, by Statement on Auditing Standards No. 98.]
When the auditor becomes aware of information which relates to financial statements previously reported on by him, but which was not known to him at the date of his report, and which is of such a nature and from such a source that he would have investigated it had it come to his attention during the course of his audit, he should, as soon as practicable, undertake to determine whether the information is reliable and whether the facts existed at the date of his report. In this connection, the auditor should discuss the matter with his client at whatever management levels he deems appropriate, including the board of directors, and request cooperation in whatever investigation may be necessary.
When the subsequently discovered information is found both to be reliable and to have existed at the date of the auditor’s report, the auditor should take action in accordance with the procedures set out in subsequent paragraphs if the nature and effect of the matter are such that (a) his report would have been affected if the information had been known to him at the date of his report and had not been reflected in the financial statements and (b) he believes there are persons currently relying or likely to rely on the financial statements who would attach importance to the information. With respect to (b), consideration should be given, among other things, to the time elapsed since the financial statements were issued.
When the auditor has concluded, after considering (a) and (b) in paragraph .05, that action should be taken to prevent future reliance on his report, he should advise his client to make appropriate disclosure of the newly discovered facts and their impact on the financial statements to persons who are known to be currently relying or who are likely to rely on the financial statements and the related auditor’s report. When the client undertakes to make appropriate disclosure, the method used and the disclosure made will depend on the circumstances.
a. If the effect on the financial statements or auditor’s report of the subsequently discovered information can promptly be determined, disclosure should consist of issuing, as soon as practicable, revised financial statements and auditor’s report. The reasons for the revision usually should be described in a note to the financial statements and referred to in the auditor’s report. Generally, only the most recently issued audited financial statements would need to be revised, even though the revision resulted from events that had occurred in prior years. fn 3
b. When issuance of financial statements accompanied by the auditor’s report for a subsequent period is imminent, so that disclosure is not delayed, appropriate disclosure of the revision can be made in such statements instead of reissuing the earlier statements pursuant to subparagraph (a). fn 4
c. When the effect on the financial statements of the subsequently discovered information cannot be determined without a prolonged investigation, the issuance of revised financial statements and auditor’s report would necessarily be delayed. In this circumstance, when it appears that the information will require a revision of the statements, appropriate disclosure would consist of notification by the client to persons who are known to be relying or who are likely to rely on the financial statements and the related report that they should not be relied upon, and that revised financial statements and auditor’s report will be issued upon completion of an investigation. If applicable, the client should be advised to discuss with the Securities and Exchange Commission, stock exchanges, and appropriate regulatory agencies the disclosure to be made or other measures to be taken in the circumstances.
The auditor should take whatever steps he deems necessary to satisfy himself that the client has made the disclosures specified in paragraph .06.
If the client refuses to make the disclosures specified in paragraph .06, the auditor should notify each member of the board of directors of such refusal and of the fact that, in the absence of disclosure by the client, the auditor will take steps as outlined below to prevent future reliance upon his report. The steps that can appropriately be taken will depend upon the degree of certainty of the auditor’s knowledge that there are persons who are currently relying or who will rely on the financial statements and the auditor’s report, and who would attach importance to the information, and the auditor’s ability as a practical matter to communicate with them. Unless the auditor’s attorney recommends a different course of action, the auditor should take the following steps to the extent applicable:
a. Notification to the client that the auditor’s report must no longer be associated with the financial statements.
b. Notification to regulatory agencies having jurisdiction over the client that the auditor’s report should no longer be relied upon.
c. Notification to each person known to the auditor to be relying on the financial statements that his report should no longer be relied upon. In many instances, it will not be practicable for the auditor to give appropriate individual notification to stockholders or investors at large, whose identities ordinarily are unknown to him; notification to a regulatory agency having jurisdiction over the client will usually be the only practicable way for the auditor to provide appropriate disclosure. Such notification should be accompanied by a request that the agency take whatever steps it may deem appropriate to accomplish the necessary disclosure. The Securities and Exchange Commission and the stock exchanges are appropriate agencies for this purpose as to corporations within their jurisdictions.
The following guidelines should govern the content of any disclosure made by the auditor in accordance with paragraph .08 to persons other than his client:
a. If the auditor has been able to make a satisfactory investigation of the information and has determined that the information is reliable:
(i) The disclosure should describe the effect the subsequently acquired information would have had on the auditor’s report if it had been known to him at the date of his report and had not been reflected in the financial statements. The disclosure should include a description of the nature of the subsequently acquired information and of its effect on the financial statements.
(ii) The information disclosed should be as precise and factual as possible and should not go beyond that which is reasonably necessary to accomplish the purpose mentioned in the preceding subparagraph (i). Comments concerning the conduct or motives of any person should be avoided.
b. If the client has not cooperated and as a result the auditor is unable to conduct a satisfactory investigation of the information, his disclosure need not detail the specific information but can merely indicate that information has come to his attention which his client has not cooperated in attempting to substantiate and that, if the information is true, the auditor believes that his report must no longer be relied upon or be associated with the financial statements. No such disclosure should be made unless the auditor believes that the financial statements are likely to be misleading and that his report should not be relied on..10
The concepts embodied in this section are not limited solely to corporations but apply in all cases where financial statements have been audited and reported on by independent auditors.